The Caswell County Courthouse is a monumental structure of Victorian architecture combined with Italian Romanesque and Classical features, designed by NC architect William Percival. Built between 1857-1861, it is a symbol of pre-Civil War affluence and post-Civil War politics.
It was the site of the 1870 murder of the notorious John “Chicken” Stephens, a resented politician, allegedly by the Ku Klux Klan. This act eventually led to the Kirk-Holden War and the impeachment of Governor William Holden, the only North Carolina governor to be forcibly removed from office.
Governmental offices occupy the courthouse today.